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Flipping the Classroom Script: Flipped Learning vs. Traditional Classroom Learning

by | Aug 3, 2020 | Lesson & Curriculum Planning, STEM & STEAM, Teaching Strategies, Technology in the Classroom | 1 comment

Picture a traditional classroom….desks in rows, with the teacher at the front of the room lecturing about the Civil War while some students take notes, some students are playing on their phones, and one or two may even be dozing off. It’s quiet, only the voice of the teacher droning on can be heard. Now picture that same history class but with the students working in groups, having been assigned to either the North or the South and having to justify their role in the war, while the teacher roams the room, meeting with each group to offer probing questions and encourage deeper thinking. It’s certainly louder in this room- and in fact, it might seem to an outsider to be a little chaotic- but the students appear engaged and on task. In which classroom do you think more learning is taking place?

As you would imagine, more learning is most likely taking place in the class where the students are having real conversations about the content, and not simply listening passively to a lecture. Any time you can have your students engage in conversation or debate, they are engaging in higher-level thinking skills and processing content at a more rigorous level. That is just one of the benefits of an authentic flipped learning environment.

In that engaging history class, students had previously completed a lesson by watching a pre-recording video and answering questions about the Civil War. It helped them prepare for the expectations of the next day’s tasks- where they engaged in deeper level discourse throughout the group activity.  Thus, many teachers find value in a true Flipped Learning lesson, where at-home learning aided by technology allows students to engage more deeply in activities inside the classroom for a longer period of time.

The Flipped Learning Network is the leading education organization in studying and providing resources about flipped learning. They define Flipped Learning as a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter. In short, this means that teachers initially deliver lesson content to their students out-of-class and students work independently to learn the content. Then, they come into class and engage in activities in which they creatively apply that new knowledge, most often working in cooperative groups.

The Flipped Learning Network has even coined the acronym FLIP to outline and define the four core pillars of true flipped learning.

  • F – Flexible Environment
  • L – Learning Culture
  • I – Intentional Content
  • P – Professional Educator

Let’s examine each of these four pillars, considering what they look like in a flipped learning environment and how that differs from a more traditional classroom setting.


F – Flexible Environment

The “F” in FLIP stands for flexible environment, which of course refers to the obvious classroom space. In a flipped environment, classroom space is rearranged as needed, and other spaces such as computer labs, libraries, or outdoor areas are used as needed. This includes the flexibility of an at-  home environment where students can use technology to learn important information on an upcoming lesson in order to prepare them for more rigorous activities.  In contrast, a traditional classroom might keep desks in rows, or possibly in small groups, but rarely does the class work outside the confines of their room. Flexible environment also refers to flexible timing. In a flipped learning environment, students work at their own pace at home, but a more traditional classroom adheres to a specific schedule and even out-of-class activities have hard deadlines. The third area which is truly flexible is in the actual work done by students. Flipped learning classroom tasks are hands-on, engaging, and rigorous, and encourage students to apply their knowledge through high-level thinking. Additionally, assessments often take the form of a practical mastery task in which students demonstrate their knowledge in a creative way. This is a direct contrast to the more traditional classroom environment where classroom tasks may involve some cooperative learning, but typically involve a low level of rigor and do not require much high-level thinking. Furthermore, more traditional and lower rigor paper and pencil or online assessments are administered at the end of each lesson or unit.

 

L – Learning Culture

The “L” in FLIP represents a Learning Culture. As opposed to a traditional classroom that is often teacher-centered, a true flipped learning experience offers a learner-centered classroom culture. In this setting, the teacher serves as a facilitator and his/her role is to provide feedback to students and offer guiding questions as needed to encourage deeper thinking. Knowledge and skills are applied through activities that are high in rigor and encourage student engagement. This is in direct opposition to a teacher simply imparting knowledge to his/her students, while keeping that knowledge and skills at surface level, and planning classroom activities that are low in rigor.

 

I – Intentional Content

The “I” in FLIP stands for intentional content. Content refers to content standards, which are the standards set by a state or district that describe the knowledge and skills students need to master. In an authentic flipped learning environment, the teacher carefully analyzes content standards to determine what students are capable of learning independently, and what should be learned in class through the application of that knowledge. He/she then plans for rich learning experiences to take place in-class to increase conceptual understanding. They work hard to ensure that their out-of-class lesson delivery, in-class activities, and assessment are all clearly aligned with the content standards. On the other hand, a teacher in a more traditional setting plans for most content to be delivered in class. If the content is delivered out-of-class, the teacher may not have given much thought to what part of the content standards are best learned independently. Additionally, in-class activities and assessments often appear arbitrary and not clearly aligned with the content standards.

 

P – Professional Educator

The “P” in FLIP represents a professional educator. A professional educator sets aside time to regularly reflect on his/her practices, and they seek constructive feedback from colleagues in order to improve their practice. They also accept that noise and movement are inevitable when students are frequently working cooperatively. On the other hand, a traditional classroom teacher may be “stuck in their ways” and does not make time for regular reflection of his/her practices. They might have rigid classroom expectations and rarely give students a voice. They often limit the level of interactions such as discussion and cooperation between students.

 


 

As you would imagine, students can really benefit academically from flipped learning. By using the out-of-class time to learn the basic content knowledge, all of the in-class time can be dedicated to really applying that knowledge. Students are able to engage with their peers through discussions to analyze and evaluate ideas, in order to solve challenging problems. Furthermore, teachers are able to spend more time interacting with their students, asking questions, helping them see connections to prior knowledge, and encouraging deeper thinking. This is because the direct instruction piece has been taken out-of-class, thus freeing up class time for these engaging activities.

Implementation Goal

If you have already been experimenting with flipped learning in your class, use the resource below as a sort of checklist to ensure that you are planning the best experience for your students. If you want to give it a try, follow the steps below to plan your first flipped lesson.**

  1. Step One: Examine your content standards. Think about the knowledge and skills that are required for a particular standard and decide what could be learned independently by students outside of class, and what activities you would want them to practice in-class under your guidance.
  2. Step Two: Plan a way to deliver the new content knowledge to your students outside of class time. Often this looks like students interacting with technology at home as part of a required assignment to prepare them for the next day’s lesson. Maybe you create a slide deck or record a video, or maybe you just assign a premade video for them to watch. Be sure to include a method to check their understanding of the content that you require students to complete. This could be an online quiz, completing a worksheet of sample problems, filling out a notes outline while viewing the content, or simply sending you an email describing what they learned.
  3. Step Three: Plan the in-class tasks. Remember, these should not be basic factual recall activities, but rooted in higher-order thinking skills and require students to apply the new knowledge in a unique way. Many flipped learning activities involve cooperative groups, so think about how you could incorporate peer dialogue and interaction. The key here is that the time your students are spending in the classroom should be used for engaging activities that challenge students and pushes their thinking.
  4. Step Four: Plan a method of assessment. How will students demonstrate that they have mastered the content? And how will you support students when they show they need help?

 

** Please note that these are not detailed steps, and if you would like more guidance on the process of planning for flipped learning, consider our Flipped Learning course.

Related Professional Development Courses

Flipped Learning: An Effective At-Home & In-Class Instructional Model

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Intro to Online Learning

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Online Learning Essentials Course Bundle Pack

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Blended Learning: Integrating Technology Into the Classroom

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DOWNLOADS & RESOURCES

True Vs Flawed Flipped Learning

Use this resource as a quick reference tool to ensure you are implementing authentic Flipped Learning in your classroom.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES


COPY & PASTE URLS INTO YOUR WEB BROWSER TO VIEW

  • https://www.commonsense.org/education/videos/what-is-flipped-learning – Quick overview of Flipped Learning
  • https://flippedlearning.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/FLIP_handout_FNL_Web.pdf – Flipped Learning Network, acronym FLIP
  • http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/112060/chapters/Why-You-Should-Flip-Your-Classroom.aspx – Benefits of Flipped Learning
  • https://flippedlearning.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/FLIP_handout_FNL_Web.pdf – Flipped Learning Network, acronym FLIP
  • http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/112060/chapters/Why-You-Should-Flip-Your-Classroom.aspx – Benefits of Flipped Learning
  • https://assets.nu.edu/assets/resources/pageResources/journal-of-research-in-innovative-teaching-volume-7.pdf#page=128 – This study considers the pedagogy of flipped learning and how it is increasingly appropriate in our technology-driven world.
  • https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cae.21622 – Exploring students’ learning attitude and achievement in flipped learning supported computer-aided design curriculum: A study in high school engineering education
  • https://scholarworks.uni.edu/grp/137/ – This analysis of over 30 peer-reviewed articles concludes that flipped learning provides an engaging environment and leads to higher achievement.
Wendy Lipe

Wendy Lipe

About the Author

Education:

B.S. Interdisciplinary Studies 
Southwest Texas State University

Experience & Credentials:
Over 8 Years of Teaching Experience
Current Elementary-Level Teacher
ESL State Certified (Texas), TAG Certified
Experience with Students with Learning Disabilities

STATE CERTIFIED TEACHER

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